During a recent vacation to Italy, my wife and I had the opportunity to tour the Museo della Carta (Paper Museum) in the town of Amalfi. One source I came across referred to this museum as “a jewel of industrial archaeology,” and I fully agree. Built in the 14th century this is oldest remaining paper factory in Europe. It continued manufacturing paper until the middle of the 20th century. The museum still produces small quantities of the highly desirable “bambagina” paper for sale in its small gift shop, along with beautiful artisanal note cards and other items made from bambagina. According to one Amalfi Coast tourist site, to this day, artists around the world appreciate this very soft, thick, and elegant rag paper. It certainly is a far cry from the paper we regularly feed into our copy machines and printers! At the Amalfi paper factory-cum-museum, a stream runs right under this cavern-like building, which powered all the machines and provided the prerequisite clean “process” water. While crude by today’s standards, many of these machines were quite ingenious in design and demonstrated that manufacturing innovation has a long history.